What’s Wrong with Wind and Solar?

Have you ever heard of "unobtanium"? It's the magical energy mineral found on the
planet Pandora in the movie, Avatar. It's a fantasy in a science fiction script. But
think they've found it here on earth in the form of wind and solar power. They think all the energy we need can be supplied
by building enough wind and solar farms; and enough batteries. The simple truth is that we can't. Nor should
we want to—not if our goal is to be good stewards of the planet. To understand why, consider some simple physics
realities that aren't being talked about. All sources of energy have limits that can't
be exceeded. The maximum rate at which the sun's photons can be converted to electrons
is about 33%. Our best solar technology is at 26% efficiency. For wind, the maximum capture
is 60%. Our best machines are at 45%. So, we're pretty close to wind and solar limits.
Despite PR claims about big gains coming, there just aren't any possible.

And wind and
solar only work when the wind blows and the sun shines. But we need energy all the time.
The solution we're told is to use batteries. Again, physics and chemistry make this very
hard to do. Consider the world's biggest battery factory,
the one Tesla built in Nevada. It would take 500 years for that factory to make enough
batteries to store just one day's worth of America's electricity needs. This helps explain
why wind and solar currently still supply less than 3% of the world's energy, after
20 years and billions of dollars in . Putting aside the economics, if your motive
is to protect the , you might want to rethink wind, solar, and batteries because,
like all machines, they're built from nonrenewable materials.

Consider some sobering numbers: A single electric-car battery weighs about
half a ton. Fabricating one requires digging up, moving, and processing more than 250 tons
of earth somewhere on the planet. Building a single 100 Megawatt wind farm,
which can power 75,000 homes requires some 30,000 tons of iron ore and 50,000 tons of
concrete, as well as 900 tons of non-recyclable plastics for the huge blades. To get the same
power from solar, the amount of cement, steel, and glass needed is 150% greater. Then there are the other minerals needed,
including elements known as rare earth metals. With current plans, the world will need an
incredible 200 to 2,000 percent increase in mining for elements such as cobalt, lithium,
and dysprosium, to name just a few. Where's all this stuff going to come from?
Massive new mining operations. Almost none of it in America, some imported from places
hostile to America, and some in places we all want to protect. Australia's Institute for a Future
cautions that a global "gold" rush for energy materials will take miners into "…remote
wilderness areas [that] have maintained high biodiversity because they haven't yet been
disturbed." And who is doing the mining? Let's just say
that they're not all going to be union workers with union protections.

Amnesty International paints a disturbing
picture: "The… marketing of state-of-the-art technologies are a stark contrast to the children
carrying bags of rocks." And then the mining itself requires massive
amounts of conventional energy, as do the energy-intensive industrial processes needed
to refine the materials and then build the wind, solar, and battery hardware. Then there's the waste. Wind turbines, solar
panels, and batteries have a relatively short life; about twenty years. Conventional energy
machines, like gas turbines, last twice as long. With current plans, the International
Energy Agency calculates that by 2050, the disposal of worn-out will constitute
over double the tonnage of all of today's global plastic waste. Worn-out wind turbines
and batteries will add millions of tons more waste. It will be a whole new environmental
challenge. Before we launch history's biggest increase
in mining, dig up millions of acres in pristine areas, encourage childhood labor, and create
epic waste problems, we might want to reconsider our almost inexhaustible supply of hydrocarbons—the
fuels that make our marvelous modern world possible.

And technology is making it easier to acquire
and cleaner to use them every day. The following comparisons are typical—and
instructive: It costs about the same to drill one oil well
as it does to build one giant wind turbine. And while that turbine generates the energy
equivalent of about one barrel of oil per hour, the oil rig produces 10 barrels per
hour. It costs less than 50 cents to store a barrel of oil or its equivalent in natural
gas. But you need $200 worth of batteries to hold the energy contained in one oil barrel. Next time someone tells you that wind, solar
and batteries are the magical solution for all our energy needs ask them if they have
an idea of the cost…

to the . "Unobtanium" works fine in the movies. But
we don't live in movies. We live in the real world. I'm Mark Mills, Senior Fellow at the Manhattan
Institute, for ..

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