HOW TO BUILD SOLAR NIGHT LIGHT PART I

So hi, I’m Ricky Koehler and today we’re here, to teach you how to create the solar nightlight with some cool add-ons, the PCB 1000 micro farad capacitor, one n400, one diodes, seven, eight! Oh one, five regulator: this is for the the solar panel for fifteen volts 7805 voltage regulator.

This is for the phone charger couple of resistors the ferric chloride to remove the unwanted copper alcohol so that we can remove the marker. Sixty percent nickel. Forty percent lead wire, multiple colored bars, handrail soldering iron.

We have the solar panel. This is a 5 watt, 18 volts 12 volt battery LED acid, LED light. Clear epoxy custom-made casing a marker so that we’ll, be able to draw the circuit later on a wire stripper, the disordering soccer in the cutter, so that we will shape the PCB to the size that we want later on.

So right now what we’re going to do. Is we’re, going to show you how to get the correct size of PCB that we want for the particular purpose? Okay, so what we have to do first, is we have to draw the lines on the size that we want on the PCB, what she’s going to do now.

Is she’s? Gon na run the cutter you don’t have to apply too much pressure. You just have to do a couple of accurate repetitions to ensure that the edges of the board are properly cut or have a clean cut.

So it’s. Going to be about 20 cuts per side to ensure a perfect cut. Okay, if you have a very solid table, you can actually use the edge to align the cut or the perforation and the PCB just snap it using your hands.

Okay, so, as you can see, edges are very, very clean. No copper has been stripped off, so we’re, also going to snap off the extra. So this is what we actually need that we’re, going to draw our circuit later.

On so, the next step is basically trace. The outline of the schematic onto the PCB now, sometimes the schema, the actual electronic schematic will be different from the PCB layout. So right now the the schematic that we’re going to do is the PCB layout already to maximize the space within the board.

So we have a cadet here. She will show us how to draw the circuit on the board using the marker or the pen tool pen method. As you can see, she already penciled out the lines so that, when she applies the marker, it’s gone not going to be too difficult for her to draw it.

So make sure, however, that your lines or the pencil pen marker is not too thin, because if you do that, when we soak it in very chloride later on, the lines will no longer be visible and it’s going to be a useless PCB Because the circuit will not work properly, there are many ways to lay out the circuit on the PCB, depending on how your level of experience on creating the PCB so later on, we’ll.

Show you another layout, the one that we have soaked in a ferric chloride. Already it’s, going to be a slightly different layout, but it’s, going to be the same circuit submerge, the PCB with the layout onto ferric chloride.

So you don’t have to put much like this one. You just have it submerged so agitating that size takes about five to ten minutes of continuously shaking the container until the unwanted copper is completely taken out before you take out the board on the ferric chloride, you have to make sure that you’re Either wearing gloves or you have the equipment to take the card out without touching the ferric chloride, because it’s, it’s.

Prolonged exposure to ferric chloride can cause skin diseases. You know, and it’s acidic. So you don’t want that on your skin too long. If you don’t have gloves, you can just use lyres, and then we’re, going to wash it in water.

If you have running water around that’s, going to be better, so, as you can see, if we compare this, one has its copper gun, lured, unwanted copper. It’s already gone as compared to this one, which still has a copper there.

Of course, you have to keep it clean. My friend here he’ll, will wipe off the excess water first, just going to spray a little bit of alcohol onto that board. So you can see the marker is already starting to fade, so just give it a wipe.

So you want the pandal pen or the marker to completely be gone, because if you’re going to solder it later it’s going to be very difficult to solder the parts. So, as you can see, the markings that we made using the marker protects the the copper or the copper trace that we want from being melted by the ferric chloride.

The next step in creating the circuit is to actually drill the holes on the board so that you can actually put the components. So if we look at this particular layout, you can see that we already put nodes the nodes or the the small circles.

Here are actually indications of. We’re supposed to be drilling holes onto the board so that we can attach the components later on. We’re using 0.8, a diameter drill or drill bit. So you make sure you’re, doing it perpendicular to the board and when you’re drilling as well, make sure that you don’t, take out or completely take out the copper around it.

Because if you do that, you won’t have any place to put the solder in after drilling the holes completely. We have here the completely drilled circuit board, okay, so components such as a diode and the capacitors and regulators.

They have certain pins or specific pins that should be put in a proper orientation else. They’re not going to work. The first component that we’re going to insert is the diode that’s closest to the input of the solar panel.

We can see here that the drawing for the diode has a line on it. If we look at the actual component at either cell gray strip on one of its ends, the line there is represented by the gray strip on this particular circuit.

So remember when you’re, inserting the components as much as possible make sure that the parts or components are closest to the board. You don’t want parts hanging around because there’s, a chance that you know they might break or due to constant movement.

They eventually get worn out. So you don’t want that you want it as close as flat as possible to the board like this one. So now we’re, going to insert the resistors. The resistors has certain color bands.

So, as you can see, they look similar, but if you look closely, there are certain color bands. If you were going to count it and they represent different values so same with the diodes. What we’re going to do is we’re, going to insert them as well, making sure that they are compact and as close to the board as possible? Unlike the diodes transistors and capacitors, this one does not require you to know what kind of orientation it will be inserted because it does not have any polarity.

So just make sure they’re on the right spots, certain times that the PCB does not fit certain components. You can orient the components or resistors in that particular manner, but still protecting the the legs of the resistor, because in this particular orientation the legs are almost hidden in its goes to each other.

Therefore, protecting it or making it a little bit sturdier than just hanging it around, these are called electrolytic capacitors, meaning they have polarity. So you must only insert them in a certain orientation.

So the longer leg represents the positive terminal in the shorter leg represents the negative terminal, so that’s. What we’re, going to do it, okay and then the other one all right. We have here the t 780 15, that’s, the 15 volt regulator that will be used to ensure that the voltage coming from the solar panel will remain at 15.

Volts so make sure that you’re, very careful. That kind of bending the legs, because the legs of the transistors can easily break so for the regulator make sure that we leave certain amount of space between the board and the regulator.

Because, later on, we will be putting a heatsink on it to ensure that the heat that it dissipates will not damage the component. This is the 7805 regulator. It’s actually used so that we can use this particular circuit board, or this particular circuit as an acid charger for your phones, okay, this is optional, though you don ‘

T really have to put it in because, with a with a seven eight zero one, five component or the regulator, it’s, actually a working circuit already, the final step actually for assembling the circuit board is to solder the part in to make sure That there they stay in place.

Okay, if you’re soldering, you have to have the soldering iron first and then put some lead until it forms a mountain. You know Kisses type of formation, that’s. When you know you have a perfect solder, so when soldering components such as transistors or regulators, there are more heat sensitive than the resistors and capacitors make sure that when you’re soldering, the parts in such the regulator’s.

Transistors you don’t, spend too much time heating the component, because it is, it will damage the component permanently. You have to be cautious when putting lead as well, because you don’t want the lead to spread to other the copper lines, because that’s, going to create a short-circuit, damaging the components.

When you try to use it to ensure that the parts are properly soldered, the components must any thesis or a mountain shape formation, and it should have lustre if it doesn’t, it might be what we call a called Sutter.

What does a Code Sutter mean if you flip the circuit around and when you try to move this particular component here, you’ll, see that under the board it ‘ Ll also move if it’s a cold solder. But this one is a good Sutter, as you can see.

If we’re moving the legs at the base, they remain static. They don’t move, so what anneal now is going to do is going to trim the excess legs or the pins for the for the board. If you leave it lying around, what’s going to happen? Is they might have a tendency to stick to one another causing a short or damaged the component? You can use a cutter or even a nail cutter should be more appropriate because you can really get into those small ends.

Make sure you don’t yank the legs out, just give it a clean cut, because if you do that, you might damage the board, especially the copper, you might tear it off the PCB. So what we’re going to do now, is we’re going to attach the wires, so it’s, not important that we have multiple colored wires, but it’s better, because if you’Re going to troubleshoot it later on it’s, going to be much much easier.

Every time you put in a wire, you have to solder it in first it’s, the white wire for the positive terminal of the solar panel, and then, of course, we have to put in an equivalent a ground or negative terminal.

Next one is the blue wire. This is for the battery that we’re going to charge from the solar panel if the battery will serve as the power source at night, so that, even though, where there is no sunlight, we can use the battery to power.

The LED lights at night, so we’re, going to connect out the green wire. The green wire is for the light indicator if the solar panel is able to acquire enough power from the sunlight. Next would be the red wire for the switch or the LEDs.

I’m. Sorry that’s, where we’re, going to attach the nightlight itself yeah. Now we’re connecting the the last wire the yellow wire. This wire is for the optional 5 volt phone charger and then, after that, you can connect their corresponding black or ground wires so that they can complete the circuit.

So here’s, how it’s supposed to look, so we have here a store-bought bulb or a set of LEDs. This one is pre-made. This is better because you are sure that it’s already working the colored wire. Will be the positive terminal, the black wire will be for the ground or the negative terminal of the the bulb after identifying it.

You just have to solder wire to each end. What do you have now here? Is you’ve already soldered the black and the white terminals insert the wires onto the shaft, so, as you can see, there is a little bit of clearance at the bottom.

So what we’re going to do here is we’re, going to seal it off with epoxy or clear epoxy, so that water will not go in or in guca can’t go inside the tubing protecting the circuit? What you have here is a custom-made casing for the circuit for the letter of light, and we have here a 12-volt lead acid battery.

Why 12-volt battery? Because we’re using a 12 volt output on the circuit boards. It just makes sense that we use a 12 volt battery. However, if you have a background in electronics, you can actually step down or change the circuit a little bit so that you can get the desired voltage that you want there going to be mounts on the casing: drill, a small hole here about one point: eight millimeter Millimeter in diameter of drill and then just just place it here and then you’re, going to drill it and then put a screw so that to make sure that the lead acid battery is held in place, we’re soldering.

The battery earlier we said that the blue wire was the positive terminal for the battery, but we can use lock wire for the negative terminal to identify or properly identify, which is the positive terminal.

On the on the solar panel. You will see there are broken set of lines running through the wire. The left side, on your point of view, will be the positive terminal. The one with just a simple writing on the right will be your negative terminal or the ground.

We’re. Now, connecting the wires after that, we’re, going to show you that is actually working with the red light. We’re going to do now. Is we’re, going to attach the light indicator to make sure so that you are going to know if it’s, actually charging or not so that’s? The green terminal connected to the positive end of the lead, the stronger the light passing through the solar panel, the brighter the lid

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